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英国论文为中APA和MLA参考文献格局规范

文章出处:ROR体育APP官网 人气:发表时间:2021-11-26 06:16
本文摘要:英国论文为中APA和MLA参考文献格局规范 我们在写作英国论文的时候,是无法制止使用参考文献的。但要注意,引用别人的文献必然要加以注明,否则会被认为是剽窃。而参考文献的引用格局有MLA、APA和Chicago Manual Style。下面就给大家先容一下APA和MLA参考文献的格局规范。 01 引文的格局 引文的格局可接纳文中夹注、脚注和尾注的形式。MLA和APA格局不接纳脚注或尾注,而使用文中夹注的形式,MLA格局要求标明作者的姓和页数,它们之间没有逗号。

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英国论文为中APA和MLA参考文献格局规范 我们在写作英国论文的时候,是无法制止使用参考文献的。但要注意,引用别人的文献必然要加以注明,否则会被认为是剽窃。而参考文献的引用格局有MLA、APA和Chicago Manual Style。下面就给大家先容一下APA和MLA参考文献的格局规范。

01 引文的格局 引文的格局可接纳文中夹注、脚注和尾注的形式。MLA和APA格局不接纳脚注或尾注,而使用文中夹注的形式,MLA格局要求标明作者的姓和页数,它们之间没有逗号。

APA要求括号里标明作者姓名、出书日期,引文的其他信息可在参考文献中找到。1. 文中夹注(Parenthetical Citation) 1)引文较短时,要用双引号括起来,引文与正文融为一体。

假如作者已在文中呈现,注释中就不再列作者的名字。Hosenfeld found that unsuccessful readers could be taught the lexical strategies of successful readers, confirming Wenden’s observation that “ineffective learners are inactive learners. Their apparent inability to learn is, in fact, due to their not having an appropriate repertoire of learning strategies.”(1985:7) APA和MLA格局有哪些差别 引用整篇文献(即全书或全文)概念时有两种环境,一种是作者的姓氏在正文中没有呈现,以下是一些案例节选,完整版可以通过底部下载通道下载! 如:MLA:Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor). 展开全文 APA:Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor, 1990). 另一种环境是作者的姓氏已在正文同一句中呈现,按MLA的规范不需要使用括号夹 注,如:MLA:Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing. 而按APA的规范则没有须要在括号夹注中反复作者的姓, 如:APA:Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (1990). 假如作者的姓氏和文献出书年份均已在正文同一句中呈现,按APA的规范不需使用括号夹注,如:APA:In a 1990 article, Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing. 在英文撰写的论文中引用中文著作或者期刊,括号夹注中只需用汉语拼音标明作者的姓氏,不得使用汉字, 如:MLA:(Zhu 12) APA:(Zhang, 2005) 2)当引文较长时(四行或凌驾四行),引文要另起一段,缩进五个空格,不消引号。

Results supported the notion that learners can be taught to use more effective learning strategies: Strategies training was successfully demonstrated in a natural teaching environment with second language listening and speaking tasks. This indicates that classroom instructions on learning strategies with integrative language skills can facilitate learning(O’Malley et al 1985a: 577). 3)多个作者在第二次被提到时可用第一个作者的姓加et al. Finally, information type is based on contrasts such as concrete-abstract, static-dynamic, contextualized-decontextualized(Brown et al.1978). 4)引文是翻译质料时要注明最初出书时间和翻译时间。This is not a recent discovery. More than a hundred years ago, the neo-grammarians Hermann Osthoff and Karl Brugman described such a situation very well: When serious attempts at upset are directed against a procedure that one is used to and with which one feels comfortable, one is always more readily stimulated to ward off the disturbance than to undertake a thorough revision and possible alteration of the accustomed procedure. (Osthoff and Brugman 1878(1967):204) 2. 脚注(Footnotes) 脚注写在该页最后一行下面数四行的位置。假如该页有两个以上的脚注,脚注之间需要隔行。

在正文中的引语(直接或间接)处的上方标上阿拉伯数字,脚注也标上相应的数字。注释要包括作者姓名、书名、出书地、出书社、出书时间及页码。1. The materials used in the class consisted of two texts-a vocabulary building text and an advanced reading text-and the SRA Kit2 2. SRA Reading Laboratory is a set of materials for students in grades 9 to 12. The kit contains multilevel individualized learning materials focusing on reading and study skills. 3. 尾注(Endnotes) 尾注要另起一页,放在该章的最后一页,标上Notes,隔行打印。

引语处的上方要标上阿拉伯数字,尾注也同样标出相应的数字。4. Notes 1. Emily Bronte(Ellis Bell, pseud.), Wuthering Heights(London, 1850). 2. E. Nwezeh, “The Comparative Approach to Modern African Literature,”Yearbook of General and Comparative Literature, no. 28(1979):22. 02 参考文献(Bibliography) APA格局发起使用references一词。

当使用references时,列出的作者和作品必然是在文中提到过的。Bibliography可包括文中提到的作者或作品,也包括相关的阅读的质料。

MLA形式要求用List of Works Cited。参考文献的条目要按字母顺序分列,不消阿拉伯数字标示。

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隔行打印。每个条目要从左开始,同属一个作者时,后面几行要缩进三个空格。书目的写法包括四项:作者、日期、书名和出书社。作者项里先写出作者的姓,名字用首字母,名和姓间用逗号离隔。

假如凌驾两个作者,最后一个作者前用&,所有的作者的姓和名都要颠倒。APA形式把日期放在名后,其前后都有句号。书名的第一个字母要大写,用斜体或下划线。

假如有小标题,用冒号把大标题和小标题离隔。Krashen, S. 1982. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon. Lenneberg, E. 1967. Biological Foundations of Language Teaching. New York: John Wiley and Sons. MLA也包括这四项,只是顺序差别。

它的时间放在后面。当有两个以上的作者时,只颠倒第一个作者的名字。Cisneros, Sandra. Woman Hollering Creek. New York: Random, 1991. Barlett, Donald L., and James B. Steele. Forevermore: Nuclear Waste in America. New York: Norton, 1985 在标注杂志或期刊时,注来岁月,年在前,月在后,由逗号离隔。月份要求会拼。

标题的第一个字母要大写,用单引号。还要提供详细的页数。

Gregg, K. R. 1984. ’Krashen’s monitor and Occam’s razor.’ TESOL Quarterly 20:116-22 Jacobson, W. 1987.’ An assessment of the communication needs of non-native speakers of English in an undergraduate physics lab.’ ESP Journal 5:173-88. Johnson, K. 1983.’ Syllabus design: possible future trends’ in K. Johnson and D. Porter(eds.): Perspectives in Communicative Language Teaching. New York: Academic Press.(论文集中的一篇) MLA形式要求标题的所有词的首字母大写。摘引报纸: Greene, Bob.“What’s Bad For General Motors?”. Chicago Tribune 24 December, 1991:2.1(MLA格局) 以上就是关于APA和MLA参考文献的格局规范,同学们在引用参考文献的时候必然要注意格局,否则后果很是严重。

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本文关键词:英国,论文,为,中,APA,和,MLA,ROR体育,参考文献,格局

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